The school was first established on July 18, 1947 as the Marikina Junior High School by virtue of Municipal Council Resolution No. 59, s. 1947.
On July 18, 1949, the school was renamed Marikina High School since the full four-year secondary general course was offered.
Then on July 18, 1952, the name of the school was again changed to Leodegario Victorino Memorial High School in honor of Leodegario Victorino, the first Marikenian to become Division Superintendent of Schools in the province of Rizal. The school retained its name until its conversion into a National School of Arts and Trades on July 1, 1957 by virtue of Republic Act No. 1586 authored by Rep. Serafin Salvador, Second District of Rizal. The school was then named as Marikina School of Arts and Trades (MSAT).
During the school year 1957-1958, the first year of the Four-Year Secondary Trade Curriculum commenced and the first batch of graduates finished in March 1961.
Beginning the school year 1960-1961, the Two-Year Trade Technical Education Curriculum was offered with specializations in Applied Electronics, Industrial Electricity and Woodworking.
It was during the school year 1960-1961 when the Evening Opportunity Classes were organized to offer vocational courses which were highly in demand in the industries. The areas of specialization offered were: Electronics, Electricity, Machine Shop Practice and Dressmaking.
In 1962, the SEATO Textile Training Center was put up to provide a pool of textile technicians for the growing textile industry. It offered a One- Year Course in Mill Maintenance and One-Year Special Mechanical Technology.
In 1965, the Philippines-France Pilot Training Center for Electrical Trades was established as an additional curricular offering by virtue of Republic Act No. 4815 sponsored by the then Congressman Frisco San Juan. It provided a pool of electrical technicians for the electrical industry.
In school year 1967-1968, the Four-Year Teacher Education Program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education (BSIE) was offered. This was organized to provide the various high schools in the service area with qualified vocational teachers.
In Summer 1969, the Graduate Education Program was organized by the Bureau of Vocational Education. The initial graduate education courses were the Master of Education for vocational school administrators and supervisors and the Master of Arts in Teaching for vocational teachers and instructors of Technology, Science and Mathematics.
In 1975, the MSAT Graduate Education Program was included under the Ministry of Education (MEC) Integrated Scholarship Program upon the reorganization of the Department of Education and Culture.
On May 8, 1978, the name of the school was again changed to Marikina Institute of Science and Technology (MIST) by virtue of a Malacañang approval.
In November 1982, some key officials of MIST headed by Supt. Avelino Asuncion were involved in the conceptualization and implementation of the Technical Vocational Education Project (TVEP) of the Philippines. The school was chosen as the National Center for Technical Education and Staff Development (NCTESD) which was one of the components of the project.
In June 1983, the technical vocational education project formally started with the Diploma in Industrial Technician (DIT). In July 1983, the Master of Technician Education (MTE) curriculum was offered with 78 scholars from the 23 Technical Education Institutes (TEIs) of the Philippines
In 1993, the Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSE) was offered by virtue of DECS Order No. 3, s. 1993 with fields of specialization in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, English and the different technology areas.
In 1996, DECS transferred the Institute’s supervision to the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) hence, MIST became a CHED-Supervised Institute (CSI). However, in 2000 MIST’s supervision was transferred to the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in accordance with Special Provision No. 8 of the General Appropriation Act (GAA), FY 2000. The special provision included the phasing out of the baccalaureate degree programs namely: the Bachelor of Science in Industrial Education and the Bachelor of Secondary Education as well as the Laboratory High School and the Graduate Education Programs. The abolition of the degree programs caused clamor from the people of Marikina City and its neighboring town and cities for the re-opening of the degree courses.
Having realized the educational needs of his constituents, Hon. Congressman Del R. De Guzman of Marikina City sponsored a bill converting the Institute into a State College which was supported by a counterpart bill in the Senate sponsored by Hon. Edgardo J. Angara. The bill was finally approved and became a law as Republic Act No. 9289 on April 14, 2004, thus the birth of Marikina Polytechnic College.
In May 2004, Mrs. Yolanda E. Olano, being the Superintendent of the then MIST, was designated by the Board of Trustees as the Officer-In- Charge of the College.
In December 1, 2004, Dr. Manuel R. Pangilinan was appointed as the first President of the College.
In January 2007, Dr. Henry L. Lañada was appointed OIC-President by virtue of BOT Resolution No. 4, s. 2007 then to Acting President on June 18, 2007 through BOT Resolution No.65, s. 2007.
Dr. Lañada assumed office as President of the College in November 2008 by virtue of Board Resolution No. 25, s. 2008 after a national search for President of MPC was conducted.
In 2009, the Doctorate Program major in Educational Management and Industrial Education Management was offered by virtue of Board Resolution No. 11, s. 2009 with an initial enrolment of 25 students.
Dr. Lañada was re-appointed for his second term on Dec. 1, 2012.
To date, the undergraduate programs include the Bachelor of Technical Vocational Teacher Education (BTVTED), Level II AACCUP Accredited Bachelor of Technical Teacher Education (BTTE) and the Bachelor of Industrial Technology (BIT).
The College offers a three-year non-degree program, which has TESDA UTPRAS Recognition, and short-term non-credit courses. The shoe and leathercraft center has also been continuously enhanced as one of the College mandate.
In November 17, 2015, Dr. Virginia D. Bacay was designated as the OIC- President through CHED Special Order.
Dr. Luna G. Madera took over as OIC-President from April 1, 2016 up to October 19, 2016 by virtue of a Special CHED Memorandum Order No. 19, s. 2016.
Dr. Joselito B. Gutierrez came in on October 20, 2016 and took his oath as College President on December 1, 2016.